Oaths, Declarations and Codes...

In last 40 years a growing number of scientific practices have extended beyond national borders and the necessity of setting universal ethical guidelines covering all issues raised in the field of bioethics and the need to promote the emergence of shared values have increasingly been a feature of the international debate. States have a special responsibility not only with respect to bioethical reflection but also in the drafting of any legislation that may follow. In this blog I will present some important declarations and codes which play essential role in bioethics (with focus on: human dignity, human rights and fundamental freedom). To the International declarations I will also ad their source web addresses for further research.


UN Charter

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and Optional Protocol

Convention Against Torture (CAT)

UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights

UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide


African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights Maputo Protocol

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women

Codes of Ethics:

International Code of Medical Ethics - World Medical Association 1949,1968,1983

Code of Ethics - Australia 2004 (editorially revised 2006)

Declaration of Geneva - World Medical Association 1949,1968,1983

Declaration of Helsinki - World Medical Association 1964

Five Commandments and Ten Requirements - China 1617

Oath of Asaph - Jewish, 3rd-7th Century AD

Oath of Hippocrates - Greece 4th Century BC

Oath of Initiation - India 1st Century AD

Oath of a Soviet Physician - Soviet Union 1971

Seventeen Rules of Enjuin - Japan 16th CenturyAD

Solemn Oath of a Physician of Russia - Russia 1992

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